MEMBERSHIP

Member Spotlight:

January 2020: J. Kale Monk, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Human Development and Family Science, State Extension Specialist, University of Missouri

J. Kale Monk, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Human Development and Family Science, State Extension Specialist, University of Missouri
Graduated in 2017 (HDFS, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
Email: monkj@missouri.edu
Twitter: @Kalemonk
ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Monk

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

I really became interested in emerging adulthood in my marriage and family therapy Master’s program at Kansas State University. I was treating a number of emerging adult clients who were experiencing psychological and relational distress, which made me fascinated with romantic relationships, especially during transitions like the transition to adulthood or the transition to marriage. In a recent paper published in Emerging Adulthood, Drs. Amber Vennum, Kay Pasley, Frank Fincham, and I described emerging adulthood as a natural context to understand relationships and intervene because (a) this transitional period is characterized by intense emotional relationships and the contemplation of long-term commitment, (b) maladaptive relationship patterns are prone to continue and affect later adult outcomes, and (c) distress is estimated to be higher in emerging adults than in other developmental periods. Given my interest in relationship instability across transitions, what unique developmental window would be a better fit to investigate these experiences?

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

I have a number of projects relevant to emerging adulthood, but the one that I am most excited about is what I labeled the “Beyond Cold Feet” project. Guided by inertia theory, some of my colleagues (Drs. Tyler Jamison, Jeremy Kanter, and Luke Russell) and I are trying to understand the process of cancelling a wedding and breaking off an engagement. We know a lot about divorce and quite a bit about the break-up of a dating relationship, but we know very little about instability and dissolution during this unique transition period. Couples may have sent out wedding invitations (making their commitment more public) and invested funds into their wedding day (e.g., booking a venue), for example, that may tempt them to continue on into marriage as a form of sociocultural momentum even if warning signs are present. We are finding, however, that individuals who stopped this momentum recognized that legal marriage often confers more moral and structural obligations that make exiting a union more challenging and distressing than ending a dating relationship. As a result, the engagement period acted as a crucible that prompted participants, particularly women in our study, to contemplate the future more seriously. Engaging in rituals like picking out wedding dresses and wedding music helped them visualize, for example, walking down the aisle and not feeling the person at the altar is the “right one.” The impending wedding date made the red flags and issues emerging adults experienced in their relationships more salient to them and their future.

I’m particularly interested in unique stressors that emerging adults can encounter and the implications of these stressors on their relationships. Thus, my second line of work has centered on relational experiences in both marginalized groups and military couples. Funded by the Family Process Institute, my colleague, Dr. Sarah Killoren, and I are collecting data from Latina/o/x individuals in relationships between the ages of 18-29 to understand the association between minority stress, sociopolitical uncertainty (e.g., doubts, questions, or concerns about feeling welcome in the context of hearing discourse about family separation at the border or hate crimes) and mental health. We want to see the role romantic relationships (e.g., partner supportiveness, relationship maintenance) play in this process over time. Military couples also face unique stressors and a variety of transitions, such as frequent relocations and reintegration following deployment. Most service members are emerging adults with enlistment eligibility ranging from age 17 (with parental consent, 18 without parental consent) to the mid-thirties or younger for most branches of the military, making the average age around 27 years old for enlisted individuals. Research consistently shows that military service can have positive and negative effects that last over the whole life course. Working with Dr. Chris Proulx, a fellow of the Gerontological Society of America, has encouraged me to think about aging and how stressors experienced (e.g., trauma during deployment) and relational processes (e.g., social connectedness across the transition home from deployment and the transition to civilian life) formulated in emerging adulthood can change or continue over time to impact late life adjustment for older veteran couples. We are currently working on a number of grant proposals to fund this work.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

Besides re-watching “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” (who doesn’t like a teenager – who eventually grows into an emerging adult -- who beats up vampires?), I mostly just watch “the Real Housewives” reality shows. Although the majority of the housewives are well beyond their emerging adult years, if you love tantalizing gossip, people flaunting extravagant wealth, and the drama of “friends” constantly backstabbing each other at charity fundraisers or fancy dinner parties, I have a show for you! Anyway, I did recently watch “Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt,” which is about a woman freed from an underground bunker after being kidnapped as an adolescent and convinced she needed to stay for years with the “Reverend” and three other victims to survive. The show is all about Kimmy’s readjustment to life and adulthood after missing out on a “typical” emerging adult development experience. This show illustrates how the context in which adolescents and emerging adults live can really impact their formative development. Although the show is intended to be humorous, it is inherently predicated on a traumatic life experience that can inspire discussion about serious topics like the fact that the main character was essentially forced into a cult, secluded from society, and forced into a sexual relationship with an adult man at a young age – traumatic experiences that have long-term ramifications on her identity development, view of the world, and future romantic attachments.

As far as popular media that directly relates to my research, I was recently interviewed for a podcast discussing my work as it relates to the 90s/00s TV show “Friends,” which follows six emerging adults (in their 20s for most of the series anyway) as they explore their identity, navigate career transitions, and find relationships with differing degrees of commitment and success – you can listen here:
http://shoutengine.com/RelevatePresentsScholarsShip/friends-live-with-dr-kale-monk-69523

August 2019: Spencer B. Olmstead, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, and Co-Director of the Well-Being in Adolescents and Emerging Adults Laboratory (WAE)

Spencer B. Olmstead, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, and Co-Director of the Well-Being in Adolescents and Emerging Adults Laboratory (WAE)Graduated in 2010 (Marriage and Family Therapy, Florida State University)
Email: solmstea@utk.edu

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

I became interested in emerging adulthood through my work with Dr. Frank Fincham at Florida State. As a part of my doctoral training and a multi-million dollar grant he received, we provided relationship education to college students. As I worked with these students, I became intrigued with how their relationship experiences were unique from adolescents. It was working with them that I learned about the language and meanings they attach to these experiences. I came to see being an emerging adult and attending college as an interesting intersection of transitions, and I’ve been very interested in emerging adults’ romantic and sexual experiences ever since.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

Most of my current research is focused on emerging adults and, in particular, their romantic and sexual relationships. I have recently published results that focus on the meanings emerging adults attach to sexual activity and how this is, or is not, attached to commitment. We have found that there is considerable variation in these meanings and the language emerging adults use to describe how sex is related to relationship commitment. Our most recent study compared emerging adults who were in college and those who had no college experience. We found five different groups of participants who had subtle distinctions in the meanings they ascribed to sex. These groups also tended to differ in their previous casual sex experience and their number of lifetime sexual partners. I also continue to examine the casual sex experience referred to as “hooking up.” Currently my co-authors and I are analyzing how college attending and non-college-attending emerging adults define hooking up. My future plans include moving into a line of study that is timely, that of sexual consent. Previous studies using emerging adult samples have shown that this is an important topic of inquiry, and there are opportunities to learn more and help to prevent sexual assault and coercion among emerging adults.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

I don’t know that I can pinpoint a particular television show or movies that have been particularly influential. However, I am always fascinated with movies that focus on the role of technology in the romantic and/or sexual experiences of young adults. In addition, movies that seem to address casual sex (e.g., No Stings Attached or Friends with Benefits) are interesting to watch to learn more about how the media portrays these relationship experiences. There are many ways that the media gets these experiences wrong (i.e., a happy ending), but there are many things they portray correctly, such as the complexity of these relationships and the role of emotional responses to these experiences. I discuss this at length in a recent podcast with Eric Goodcase as a part of the Relevate podcast series. I’d recommend any interested to listen. It can be found here.

April 2019: Barrett Scroggs, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Pennsylvania State University, Mont Alto

Barrett Scroggs, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Pennsylvania State University, Mont Alto
Graduated May 2018 (Life-Span Human Development, Kansas State University)
Social media: @DrScroggs
Email: bws74@psu.edu

What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?
I was a master’s student studying Drama Therapy at Kansas State University and had decided to explore the possibility of pursuing a Ph.D. in Human Development. At the time I was doing a lot of work in early childhood and assumed that would be my research focus. However, as I was looking at Ph.D. programs I took a course on the transition to adulthood and everything clicked. Somewhere in the back of my mind I knew I wanted to study the experiences of gender and sexual minority (GSM) individuals (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer individuals) but I did not know what type of Ph.D. program would allow me to do that. Through the course on emerging adulthood I recognized that I could be doing the type of research I wanted to do within this population. I also recognized that research on GSM emerging adults was needed. Many GSM individuals are exploring their sexual orientation and/or gender identity during this period of the life-span and so it is important for those of us in this field to explore their unique experiences. The faculty member who taught the emerging adulthood class became my major professor and, two years later, I had the opportunity to co-teach the class with her which brought that whole experience full-circle.

What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

My research explores the experiences of GSM individuals as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. One of my research foci related to GSM emerging adults is religiosity within this population. Whereas it has been assumed that GSM emerging adults are non-religious, my research with my colleague, Nathaniel Faflick, illustrates that certain factors (including feeling connected to the GSM community) are associated with higher levels of church attendance in GSM individuals (Scroggs & Faflick, 2019). Additionally, I along with my colleagues Jason Miller and Hunter Stanfield found that being able to integrate one’s GSM and religious identities is associated with higher levels of well-being when it is explained through church attendance (Scroggs, Miller, & Stanfield, 2018). GSM emerging adults are better able to reconcile their seemingly contradictory identities when they are connecting in a faith community.

I am also interested in how parental support can be a protective factor for emerging adults. My research with Derek Lawson and Dr. Amber Vennum (In press) found that perceptions of parental warmth measured during adolescence positively predicted income and well-being during young adulthood for sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. However, there were significant differences between the two groups; parental warmth was a stronger predictor of later well-being in sexual minority individuals whereas income was a stronger predictor of later well-being for heterosexual individuals.

Finally, another line of my research is the experience of sexual guilt during the transition to adulthood. My colleagues Ryan Madrigal, Nathaniel Faflick, and I found that feeling guilty about having had sex during adolescence was associated with lower levels of self-esteem across emerging adulthood (Scroggs, Madrigal, & Faflick, 2019). Additionally, adolescent sexual guilt was significantly associated with the trajectory of self-esteem in emerging adults of color. We are continuing this analysis by exploring the contextual factors which put emerging adults of color especially at risk for sexual guilt.

What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

I am currently reading the memoir I can’t date Jesus by Michael Arceneaux. In his memoir, Arceneaux explores his experience growing up as a black gay man. The memoir includes stories about his experience reconciling his sexual orientation with his religious identity which echo the research I have been publishing on this topic. Additionally, many of the stories he tells are situated during his early 20’s as he was developing his identity and so his memoir has been an intriguing case study in emerging adulthood.

On a somewhat related note, I have recently binge-watched Pen15 on Hulu and Big Mouth on Netflix. Both shows explore adolescence in a comedic way (Pen15 casts two adult actors as 13-year-olds acting in scenes with actual 13-year-olds). What I appreciate about both shows is that they are honest depictions of adolescence, puberty, identity development, developing autonomy, etc.

I also just returned from the Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development. I attended an inspiring symposium titled “Emerging Sexual Identity Labels: What can Youth Tell us and Where do we go from Here?” which included research by Ryan Watson, Meg Bishop, Caitlin Clark, Will Beischel, and others. The presentation offered a collection of empirical studies on the emergent identity labels that adolescents and emerging adults are using for their sexual orientation and gender identity. The research acknowledged that many adolescents and emerging adults are using emergent labels (e.g., pansexual, queer, asexual, demisexual, etc.) to describe their identities and was an excellent reminder about how researchers in our field can continue to evolve just as the language emerging adults are using is also evolving.

December 2018: Alan Meca, PhD, Assistant Professor, Old Dominion University

Graduated May 2014 (Developmental Science, Florida International University)
Social media: @Dr_AMeca
Email: ameca@odu.edu
Website: https://sites.wp.odu.edu/tardis/

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

My interest in emerging adulthood runs in parallel to my interests more broadly in identity development. As a second-generation immigrant, I first became interested in the topic of identity development as I learned about my father’s immigration story. As a Cuban refugee in his early-twenties, my father was not only forced to give up on his educational aspirations, but move to an entirely new country with little to knowledge of the language or its customs. For him, identity work was extremely limited by life circumstances. Additionally, as I continued my education, I became fascinated with the identity as I observed my peers in high school and college either struggle to find a direction or give up on the process entirely. It was these observations in my personal life that led me to join the Miami Youth Development Project (YDP; Kurtines et al., 2008) under Dr. William Kurtines in 2008. The YDP was an identity-focused intervention that was implemented at voluntary alternative high schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Drawing from our experiences with the YDP, we developed the Miami Adult Development Project (ADP) to address identity-related issues among college seniors (Meca et al., 2014). These experiences where formative in not only exposing me to the research, but familiarizing me with the literature on developmental science, identity theory, positive youth development, and emerging adulthood.
Despite the effectiveness of the ADP, as I became more exposed to identity theory and the research on cultural identity in particular, I realized that much more work was still needed to better understand identity development across its various domains to better understand how to develop and refine identity-focused interventions. Towards that end, and thanks to the phenomenal mentorship by Drs. Dionne P. Stephens and Seth J. Schwartz, my research has become focused more broadly on understanding identity development, particularly among marginalized and underrepresented and populations.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

Building on my experiences as a second-generation immigrant, my research agenda is currently focused on the refinement of measures of cultural identity among ethnic/racial minority college students. In collaboration with Dr. Melinda Gonzales-Backen from Florida State University, we will be introducing exploring methodological concerns associated with several measures focused on ethnic/racial identity and national identity (i.e., identification with being American). Additionally, as part of a large multi-university collaborative spearheaded by Dr. Byron L. Zamboanga, I will be exploring the role cultural identity and stressors (i.e., discrimination) impact alcohol use among college-attending emerging adults. Finally, and spurred by recent research on “identity shifting” (Johnson et al., 2016), we are beginning a project focused on how ethnic/racial minority navigate their cultural environment (e.g., code-switching, cultural-frame switching).

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

In terms of academic reading, given my recently publication in Emerging Adulthood on individual differences in the links between ethnic/racial identity processes and well-being, I have been reading through several articles by Tiffany Yip on the dynamics between ethnic/racial identity process and content. Additionally, I have been familiarizing myself with the topic of code-switching as proposed by Cross and Strauss (1998) and after finalizing our contribution to the special, I have been slowly reading through the rest of the articles in Josč Causadias and Dante Cicchetti’s special issue on Cultural Development and Psychopathology published in Developmental Psychopathology (https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/development-and-psychopathology/latest-issue)
Outside of academic articles, as a recent father, I have not had much time to watch much of anything! During the pregnancy, my wife and I did binge watch “How I Met Your Mother” and although the characters are in their mid- to late-twenties, they none the less struggle with many of the issues we see emerging adults struggle. Concerns regarding identity, future directions, difficulties with making commitment, and the transition into adulthood. Not sure how stimulating this was in terms of my research though!

References
Cross, W. & Strauss, L. (1998). The everyday functions of African American identity. In J. Swim & C. Stangor (Eds). Prejudice: The target’s perspective (pp. 267–279). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Johnson, J. C., Gamst, G., Meyers, L. S., Arellano-Morales, L., & Shorter-Gooden, K. (2016). Development and validation of the African American Women's Shifting Scale (AAWSS). Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 22, 11-25.
Kurtines, W. M., Ferrer-Wreder, L., Berman, S. L., Lorente, C. C., Briones, E., Montgomery, M. J., Albrecht, R., Garcia, A. J., & Arrufat, O. (2008). Promoting positive youth development: The Miami Youth Development Project (YDP). Journal of Adolescent Research, 23, 256-267.
Meca, A., Eichas, K., Quintana, S., Maximin, B. M., Ritchie, R. A., Madrazo, V. L., Harari, G. M., & Kurtines, W. M. (2014). Reducing identity distress: Results of an identity intervention for emerging adults. Identity: An International Journal of Theory of Research, 14, 312-331

August 2018: Kristin M. Anders, PhD, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Kansas State University

Graduated May 2017 (Child and Family Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville)
Social media: @kanders_postdoc
Email: kanders8@ksu.edu 

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

I remember when I was first heading off to college, I had this perception of college as an opportunity to really “figure myself out” and feeling so much excitement about what that meant for my future. I think that memory always stuck with me, and I always thought that the transition into college and your early twenties was such an impactful and interesting time period. For many it’s a chance to potentially become whoever you want to be. Once I got into graduate school I was really drawn to emerging adulthood because I realized that many EAs look to their peers or society to help guide their behaviors during this period and that this had both positive and negative effects. You can go off to college and try out so many identities, but on the flip side it is also a vulnerable time because this independence can often be unguided or guided by the wrong sources of information. I’ve been really driven by using this type of research to help inform educational systems and policies, particularly as I think college is such a great time to implement healthy educational practices especially when these individuals are exploring and seeking out new sources of information. I also love that it is an opportunity for individuals to get exposed to more diverse cultures and education, and getting to watch how EAs sort through and process these new exposures.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

Some of my recent research has really focused on sexual identity development during the first year of college when EAs are transitioning into college. I am really interested in this period because it is when EAs are getting some of their perceptions of college and their peers challenged, particularly in relation to sexuality and behavioral engagement. Recently Dr. Spencer Olmstead and I conducted research examining first year students’ internalized sexual goals and fears they hold for themselves as they transition into college (i.e., sexual possible selves). I really wanted to look at what is leading to variability in EA’s internalized goals, how these goals may shape behaviors (or not), and what specific developmental influences shape what goals they come into college with. The goal of this research is to help us better understand intrinsic motivators for sexual development and to inform educational programs in college. Overall, we found that although “hooking up” cultures are often perceived and discussed as the normative sexual culture on campus, many of the students discussed holding goals around exploring their sexuality within a more bonded sexual relationship (not necessarily committed relationship, just some form of emotional bond). This research was really interesting because we used qualitative interviews to collect the data which allowed us to hear how the students were processing and working through their internalized goals even as we discussed them in the interview. We were also able to follow these students longitudinally as well and found that a large proportion of the students changed their internalized sexual goals from the beginning to the end of their first semester in college. Many of them discussed how new experiences or relationship changes in college altered their perceptions of what they wanted for themselves in the future.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

I am guessing you mean research articles, because who has time to read or watch TV for pleasure, right?! In reality though, I have recently been watching the show New Girl, and throughout the earlier seasons the main character (Jess) has just left a long term relationship and for the first time starts to explore her sexual preferences as an EA. The show does an interesting job addressing social pressure from her friends and Jess’s misperceptions of “normal” casual sex behaviors that puts pressure on her to engage in casual sex exploration that she isn’t really comfortable with but feels like she should do. This show made me start to think more about how social or peer norms are portrayed and addressed in mainstream media. I’ve also really enjoyed watching Jess’s sexual identity development occurring across the seasons, particularly because she becomes more confident and committed in her sexuality.
I have also been really interested in interpersonal relationship violence research recently. Specifically I have been interested in the use of sexual coercion within EA relationships. One article by Klipfel, Claxton, and van Dulmen (2014) has really stimulated my thinking about this because it examined sexual violence in a variety of committed and non-committed sexual relationships (e.g., friends with benefits). I think this article does a good job emphasizing the heterogeneity of violence experienced in casual sex relationships, and that we should look at them as more unique experiences rather than grouping casual sex relationships together. This article has informed some research that I am currently conducting with my Postdoc mentor, Dr. Michelle Toews, in which we are examining variations in the use of sexual coercion across different types of relationships.

April 2018: Laura J. Holt, Ph.D.,


1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

Many years ago I attended a talk by Jeffrey Arnett where he introduced his theory of emerging adulthood. Not only did it make intuitive sense to me (I was an emerging adult at the time!), but I was struck by the fact that substance use and risky sexual behavior were highest during this developmental stage. At the same time, I was energized by the fact that this is a life stage full of opportunity and possibility. As a clinical psychologist, my mind immediately went to intervention and prevention research. How can we help emerging adults to build healthy relationships, minimize risky behavior and its consequences, and navigate life transitions? As a college professor who works with students in this developmental stage daily, this overarching goal motivates my current research.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

My research broadly focuses on substance use and abuse in emerging adulthood. Currently, I am exploring the issue of prescription stimulant misuse, given that this class of prescription drugs is misused by college students more often than any other class of prescription drugs. My collaborators and I are examining demographic and psychosocial factors that predict the misuse of these drugs, as well as the ways in which students with ADHD and legitimate prescriptions are approached by others who are seeking stimulant medication for recreational use, most commonly to stay awake to complete their academic work.

We recently published a paper in Psychology of Addictive Behaviors in which we showed that over half of students with ADHD had been approached to divert their medication (i.e., give it away or sell it), and over a third engaged in diversion. Importantly, one of the best predictors of diversion was exposure to requests for one’s medication. Accordingly, my colleagues and I are in the process of developing intervention strategies targeting students with ADHD that will hopefully help them to navigate these requests without diverting their medication. Ultimately, I would also like to raise awareness among emerging adults without ADHD about the negative consequences associated with taking a friend’s stimulant medication without a prescription. Students who ask friends for their medication may not realize that doing so can lead a prescribed student to go without his/her medication, among other negative effects.

In the past, I also have conducted research on the effects of relationship education on emerging adults with fellow SSEA member Jonathan Mattanah. We tested electronic (ePREP) vs. group formats of the PREP curriculum developed by Scott Stanley and colleagues and published our findings in Personal Relationships in 2016. As noted by Meg Jay in her 2013 TEDtalk, "The 20s are not a throwaway decade — they're a developmental sweet spot as it is when the seeds of marriage, family and career are planted."

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

I could cite many examples of research, film, and books, but I will mention just a few. As a Gen Xer who can recall life before smartphones, I am fascinated with research on the effects of digital technology. I am especially interested in research exploring the effects of social media and dating apps on relationship formation and well-being in emerging adulthood. In one of my courses we are reading a 2017 article by Sumter, Vandenbosch, and Ligtenberg about emerging adults’ motivations for using Tinder. Just last weekend I came across Maureen Dowd's article in the New York Times, “What’s Lust Got To Do With It?” where she discusses women’s consensual, but unwanted hookups and the roles that dating apps, alcohol, and pornography might play in motivating women’s decisions about their sexual behavior and their sexual identity. This article, coupled with an article I read about Tinder use in emerging adults in 2015, has led me to consider the benefits and drawbacks technology affords emerging adults during a critical time of relationship and identity formation.

On the topic of substance abuse, last week I viewed a documentary on Netflix, "Take Your Pills”, which discussed the epidemic of prescription stimulant misuse and how/why these drugs are used in college and the workplace. Viewing the documentary reminded me of one reason I study this issue: what sociocultural factors have led prescription stimulants to be so available and perceived to be so necessary to function academically in college and graduate school? As is typical, it was one of my students who told me about it!

For more information on Dr. Holt’s work, visit: https://commons.trincoll.edu/holtresearchlab/

September 2017: Oliver Robinson, Ph.D.

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

I had a difficult and emotionally volatile time in my early and mid-twenties, which peaked as a major crisis about a year or two after leaving university. I struggled with conflict surrounding my aspirations and goals, my spiritual beliefs, my relationship with my parents, my culture and its materialistic ethos, and with my sense of ‘who I really am’ underneath my cultural conditioning and the social expectations placed on me. I then did a PhD exploring whether and why other people had been through this kind of existential crisis while in their twenties, and this led to a decade of work investigating the topic in a variety of ways. I now refer to is the phenomenon as ‘quarter-life crisis’, and see it as intricately linked to emerging adulthood, particularly in the passage out of emerging adulthood (as discussed in Robinson, O.C. (2015). Emerging adulthood, early adulthood and quarter-life crisis: Updating Erikson for the twenty-first century. In. R. Žukauskiene (Ed.) Emerging adulthood in a European context (pp.17-30). New York: Routledge).

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

I am currently writing up a longitudinal study of university graduates, where I followed 200 graduates for a year after leaving university and asked them on three occasions over that year to rate their wellbeing, depression symptoms, career status and sense of authenticity. At the end of the study, they reported if they had been through a major personal crisis during the past year, and described these crises in short written vignettes. 30% stated that the past year had been one of major crisis. This suggests that the transition out of Higher Education is a very sensitive one and needs much more support than is currently being offered. Here is one example of one vignette from the study:
“I struggled to find a secure job either related to what I studied or otherwise. I started questioning what my point in life was and wondered how I even managed to get a degree in something employers appeared to think I was no good in. My partner left for university as well which left me feeling very alone, and I realised that the little money I got from my job would never be enough for me to become an independent adult. The realisation of that was crushing.”

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

I recently watched a fascinating documentary about the ‘idol’ craze in Japan, which is available to view on Youtube, and have been reading about how Japanese many young adults have given up on relationships and sex. This information from Japan has made me reflect on how emerging adults in different cultures are responding to the challenges of technology and changing social expectations and demands surrounding love and sex. Recently, an eminent futurologist has predicted that by 2050, sex with robots will be more prevalent than sex with humans. We surely are living in strange and challenging times!!


February 2017: Jennifer Connolly

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

I was analyzing our findings from a longitudinal study of adolescents which we had initiated when the youth were 12 years of age and followed them through to the end of age 18. It became clear to me that the romantic experiences of the oldest youth in that sample were quite different from those of the younger teenagers. Their relationships were deeper and more intimate. At the same time, there was a lot of variability in the romantic experiences of the oldest adolescents, with some of them engaging in long-term relationships and others showing a tendency to participate in more exploratory relationships. These findings were very interesting and suggested that emerging adulthood is a complex time for young people when they must balance competing priorities specifically romantic relationships and vocational or academic commitments. Instead of seeing romantic relationships follow a linear developmental trajectory from adolescence, the possibility emerged that multiple pathways were possible. With my colleague Shmuel Shulman we explored this idea in a paper that was published in Emerging Adulthood in 2013. Subsequent studies began to include an emerging adulthood sample along with adolescent groups and these studies have allowed us to more carefully examine how the relationships of emerging adults differ from those of adolescents, sometimes showing continuity and at other times showing romantic patterns that resemble those of much younger adolescents.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

We have just completed a project on romantic breakups, focusing on the reasons given for the relationship termination. While we know that relationship terminations are common in emerging adulthood we know relatively little about young people’s understanding of why these relationships ended. We believe that exploring the reasons “why” relationships fall apart may help us understand the mechanisms that can explain poor post-relationship adjustment and distinguish them from non-problematic outcomes. Our sample included both late adolescents and young adults. The most frequently cited reason was a loss of pleasant affiliation with the partner. Loss of intimacy was significant for more serious relationships and the young men were more likely to cite infidelity as a reason for the breakup then were the young women. We think these findings highlight the importance of rewarding social interactions between partners in maintaining positive romantic relationships.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

Interesting question! I have been watching the Netflix series The Crown which chronicles the life of Queen Elizabeth II as she becomes the monarch at the age of 22. Viewed through the lens of emerging adulthood the series speaks to the enormous strengths and potential of young adults and gives one confidence in their ability to rise to the many challenges that face them during the turbulent years of their 20’s.


July 2016: Carolyn Barry

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

My research on emerging adults began at the end of my graduate school career. Jeff Arnett had presented his seminal work on the internal markers of adulthood to a research center at the University of Maryland, where I was enrolled. My fellow grad school friend, Larry Nelson, heard Jeff's lecture and approached me about collaborating on a research project on this new idea of emerging adulthood. Having studied adolescent peer relationships for my dissertation, I thought my interests would still be relevant among emerging adults. I collected data in the two months before I graduated in Spring 2001, and then in my first year of a tenure-track position at Loyola University Maryland (formerly named Loyola College in Maryland), and Larry simultaneously collected data at his new institution of Brigham Young University. With these three samples of college students, we began our journey into studying factors that promote a successful transition to adulthood. Since we had data from one large public institution, and two religiously-affiliated institutions, we added in some religious beliefs and practices variables amidst lots of psychosocial adjustment indicators, which lead to many publications toward tenure at each of our institutions.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

In the last several years I have been focusing on emerging adults' religiousness and spirituality in my research, having mapped the state of the literature in this area in an encyclopedia essay (Barry, Nelson, and Abo-Zena, forthcoming, Encyclopedia on Adolescence, Springer), handbook chapter (Barry & Abo-Zena, 2016, Handbook on Emerging Adulthood by Oxford University Press), and an edited volume (Emerging Adults' Religiousness and Spirituality: Meaning-making in an Age of Transition; Barry & Abo-Zena, 2014, Oxford University Press). In my empirical work, I have been focusing on a particular retrospective account of faith activities in the home as a predictor of assorted outcomes ranging from sexual behaviors (Barry, Willoughby, & Clayton, 2015, Journal of Adult Development) to religious beliefs and practices (Barry, Prenoveau & Diehl, 2013, Journal of Psychology and Christianity) to still other outcomes in forthcoming manuscripts. Having taught lifespan development to undergraduate and graduate students for almost 20 years I'm fascinated by the ways in which children learn what they live later on in their lives as emerging adults.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

Since the publication of my edited volume in 2014, I became intrigued by the growing proportion of emerging adults with no religious affiliation. I'm currently reading Drescher's Choosing Our Religion: The Spiritual Lives of America's Nones, as well as Zuckerman, Galen, and Pasquale's, The Nonreligious. While countless studies have shown religion to be a supportive context for emerging adults' development in reducing many risk behaviors, other studies have shown religion to be a context that can promote prejudice and discrimination, and significant internalizing symptomatology. Yet in the case of the nones (i.e., nonreligious), I'm currently wondering about the ways in which emerging adults who choose to not be part of any religious context can be supported in acquiring their values and worldviews to be successful in such a complex world. Relatedly, in what contexts do they find meaning and mentors that can promote their discernment? These questions seem essential for us to consider to ensure that emerging adults develop internally in order to contribute positively to society as adults.

For more information on Dr. Carolyn Barry's work, see http://www.loyola.edu/academic/psychology/faculty-staff/faculty/barry


April 2016: Elizabeth Morgan

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

My research focus is on sexuality, which is an important part of emerging
adult development. I am generally interested in how sexual development
occurs from childhood throughout adulthood, but there tends to be a lot of
interesting stuff going on during the emerging adult years. Having a
specific interest in sexual identity in particular, there are many
experiences and shifts in understanding related to sexual identity that
occur during emerging adulthood, making it a useful developmental period
for contextualizing my research. Despite my almost exclusive research focus
on sexuality, I can't imagine trying to understand one piece of human
experience without taking into account how it intersects with other pieces.
As such, understanding a broad array issues and experiences of people
during this time in their lives has been important and interesting to me as
a scholar as well as in my teaching.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us
any results?

My recent research has been focused on investigating heterosexual identity
development among emerging adults. Most recently, I have been collecting
data through focus groups and questionnaires about how
heterosexual-identified emerging adults engage in "heterosexual marking",
or public displays of heterosexuality. I am interesting in not only
identifying the ways in which they do this, but the intent behind it, which
can help us understand what this identity means to them, especially in a
social context. The results so far have indicated clear patterns in the
types of heterosexual marking that occur, and these generally include:
indicating a romantic and/or sexual interest in the other sex, engaging in
gender conforming behavior, and projecting a "non-gay" identity, which
often takes the form of displays of sexual prejudice. Results have also
shown that these behaviors and emerging adults' understandings of their
heterosexuality are entangled with heterosexism and sexism, as well as a
binary conceptualization of sexual orientation.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your
thinking about EA or related issues?

I have been really interested lately in learning more about the experiences
of emerging adults who fall into the "forgotten half" - those who do not
attend college or do briefly but do not complete it. Having done my
research almost exclusively with college students and working almost
exclusively with college-going emerging adults as a professor, I am
constantly reminded that this population is having a very different
experience than their counterparts who are not in college. There are some
scattered studies that compare college-attending to non-college attending
emerging adults and other research that has looked at specific
sub-populations of non-college attending emerging adults, but as a field of
study, we could be doing a lot better at working to understand the
experiences of a more diverse group of emerging adults.


February 2016: Maria Wangqvist

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

During my studies for a master in clinical psychology I was always very interested in adolescent development and I decided to write my master thesis on identity development. That led me into a (still ongoing) collaboration with Profs Ann Frisén and Philip Hwang who were just starting up a project were emerging adults were interviewed about their identity. The work with my master thesis was what led me into reading about Jeff Arnett’s theory on emerging adulthood, which helped put a lot of the issues raised in my thesis work (and consequent PhD-studies) into a theoretical framework. Learning more about development during the twenties also offered a framework for understanding and thinking about many of the clinical issues my peers and I had been struggling with when doing clinical work with individuals in that age-span.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

Much of my work is still within the longitudinal project that I started to work with when I did my master thesis and dissertation. In longitudinal projects people inevitably get older and we are really excited about the possibility to follow these individuals with identity interviews and other measures as they are transitioning out of emerging adulthood. So, I would say that is one of the things that excites me the most right know. What can we learn about the development in emerging adulthood by investigations of identity issues in the later parts of this period and among individuals who are just about to leave emerging adulthood behind?

For example, in one study, which we are just about to submit, we (me, Johanna Carlsson, and Ann Frisén) look at how parents in late emerging adulthood (29 years old) coordinate their commitments to work and family. In another study (see reference below) we investigate identity development in relation to romantic relationships in the late twenties (between ages 25 and 29). Ann and I have also just published a chapter (reference below) on emerging adulthood in Sweden in an edited book about emerging adulthood in a European context.

Additionally, I have just started a part time position where I meet emerging adults in a clinical setting, this, I hope, will generate new and important insights and research questions.

Here are some references to our most recent work:
Wängqvist, M., & Frisén, A. (2016). Swedish emerging adults sense of identity and perceptions of adulthood. In R. Žukauskienė (Ed.) Emerging adulthood in a European context. (pp. 154-174). Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)

Carlsson, J., Wängqvist, M., & Frisén, A. (2015). Life on hold: Staying in identity diffusion in the late twenties. Journal of Adolescence. Advance online publication. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.10.023

Wängqvist. M., Carlsson, J., van der Lee, M. & Frisén, A., (in press). Identity Development and Romantic Relationships in the Late Twenties. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research doi: 10.1080/15283488.2015.1121819

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

Right now I am really preoccupied with the transition to adulthood (emerging adulthood) in care settings and how, particularly, mental health care facilities adjust to meet the specific circumstances and demands of emerging adults. So far I have mainly addressed this by reading individual stories in the news and a recent focus in one of our daily newspapers about this issue, but I look forward to learning more about this transition from a scientific perspective.


October 2015: Laura Padilla-Walker

Each newsletter, we feature an SSEA member. This month, the spotlight is on Dr. Laura Padilla-Walker, Associate Professor of Family Life in the College of Family, Home, and Social Sciences at Brigham Young University. For more information about Dr. Padilla-Walker, please visit her faculty page at: https://fhssfaculty.byu.edu/FacultyPage.aspx?id=lpw22.

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

I have long been an adolescent scholar but when I came to BYU several of my colleagues introduced me to the theory of emerging adulthood and I began to have a number of questions about development during this time period that seemed relatively unanswered. I was introduced to scholars and mentors in this area who continued to fuel my interest in emerging adults and we launched a research project (Project READY) where we began to answer some of the questions I had that lead to continually complex questions. It was an exciting time to enter a field at its inception and learn with other scholars and friends about how we can influence optimal development during this time period.

2. What is your current EA-focused research, if any? Can you share with us any results?

I study parenting and moral development during emerging adulthood. In the area of parenting our team focuses on how parents maintain an important role in the lives of emerging adults and how parenting changes (or should change) during the transition to adulthood. My focus on moral development and positive development during this time period is in an attempt to highlight one of the positive sides of this time period, as the majority of research paints a relatively negative picture of emerging adulthood. Myself and a colleague are currently working on an edited volume with Oxford about Flourishing during Emerging Adulthood and it is a very exciting project we are looking forward to sharing in hopes that it moves the field forward in this direction.

3. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

I recently read a book about two young black men from the same area, one who went to prison and one who avoided trouble and became very successful. Both had excellent potential, only one had the opportunities he needed to succeed. This and other books I read about trajectories and opportunities stimulates my thinking about this “forgotten” group of young individuals and how we can best help them as scholars. We need to move beyond college students and explore different cultures and SES, as well as those who don’t attend college regardless of SES. I appreciate the research that is attempting to do this and hope that our own research team can do the same in an attempt to explore flourishing and floundering among a greater variety of those who are considered emerging adults.


 July 2015: Janice Abarbanel

Each newsletter, we feature an SSEA member. This month, the spotlight is on Dr. Janice Abarbanel, the Chair of the Study Abroad Topic Network. Dr. Abarbanel is a psychologist and health educator specializing in the fields of emerging adulthood and study abroad. Please click here to read more about how Dr. Abarbanel came to these fields.

I came to SSEA through a variety of paths -- at first around 2005 when I read about Arnett's concept of Emerging Adulthood. I had a clinical practice as a psychologist and family therapist for many years in D.C. and met with many high school and college students. It was a natural step for me to pay attention to the research describing this new life stage. (I had been a student of Erikson's in college, a significant developmental experience for me, one that motivated me to enter the mental health field.)

I have varied international experiences as a clinician, most recently working as NYU's first onsite psychologist at the Berlin study abroad academic center. From an intercultural point of view, I began to train the German staff about "who" the students were (i.e., Emerging Adults). This process contributed to my understanding that being an overwhelmed student abroad is likely a normal experience, and not necessarily mental illness. The skill sets for shifting cultures do not always come easily to our students -- particularly in the last 10 years as our culture has become more defined as "anxious". In addition, from abroad, American students are seen as "medicalized" -- arriving with medicines to manage moods and less so with skills to regulate emotions when things feel difficult. This perspective motivated me to move towards a role within SSEA, a way for me to shift into a position as a health educator (or health communicator) as a balance to a clinical lens. I left Berlin in the late Fall 2014 to return to the US (Boston) to further connect with SSEA and to work on bridging the research with those engaged with the growing field of study abroad and experiential education.

In January 2014, I became the Chair of the Study Abroad Network, a network for both researchers and practitioners. SSEA is committed to "researchers, policy makers, educators, and practitioners with special interests in development" during Emerging Adulthood. Our Topic Network has a vision to broaden the outreach and create important links between researchers and those on the ground with emerging adults. Unlike other Topic Network Chairs, I'm not a researcher. I believe that our organization will benefit with a wider corral to bring on board those who engage Emerging Adults 'on the ground', such as Gap Year programs, those working on ideas about National Service, Americorps, the US Peace Corps, and study abroad. These programs' populations are, for the most part, emerging adults, and it's not common for any of the providers to know about the EA research. So, there is bridging work to be done. The Study Abroad Network is just one step in this direction. In my work, I am also attempting to shift the conversation in Study Abroad programming toward an understanding of our students’ developmental gifts and challenges.


April 2015: Eva Lefkowitz

Each newsletter, we will feature an SSEA member. This month, we are featuring Eva Lefkowitz, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Professor-in-Charge of the Graduate Program in the Human Development and Family Studies Department at the Pennsylvania State University, and Chair of the Sexuality Topic Network. Further information about Eva’s research can be found at http://www.evalefkowitz.com/ and she writes a blog, focusing primarily on professional development, which can be found at http://www.evalefkowitz.com/prof-dev-blog

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?
In graduate school, my work focused predominantly on early adolescents (age 10 – 14). In particular, I examined their communication with their mothers about sex-related topics. I think I became interested in emerging adults because I spend so much of my life surrounded by them. I’ve spent almost 30 years living or working on college campuses. Studying sexuality in emerging adulthood is particularly fascinating, and you can definitely get the sense of emerging adults being “in-between” when you study sexual health. At times they seem to make very mature decisions, and other times, you look at the data and wonder what was going on that led so many to make such a decision.

2. What is your current EA-focused research? Can you share with us any results?
My research takes a developmental perspective on sexual behaviors and attitudes during adolescence and the transition to adulthood. In my research program, I emphasize the importance of recognizing the multi-dimensional nature of sexual health, considering physical, mental, emotional, and relational aspects of health and wellbeing. In recent research, I address two fundamental empirical questions: (a) what predicts the distinct negative and positive behavioral and psychological components of sexual health? and (b) what are the broader health and relationship implications of sexual health? One of the great things about being a professor in a department with a doctoral program is having students whose interests lead me in unexpected directions. For instance, our recent work demonstrates longer term consequences of sexual behavior by tracking transition to first sexual intercourse longitudinally. Transition to first intercourse is a meaningful event in adolescents’ and young adults’ lives. Although past research suggests that first intercourse at a young age can be psychologically harmful, our research demonstrates that by emerging adulthood, when sexual intercourse is developmentally normative, transitioning to first sex is associated with decreased psychological distress and, for young men only, increased body satisfaction. This research highlights the importance of sexual behaviors beyond their implications for physical health, demonstrating that by emerging adulthood, sexual behavior can positively contribute to wellbeing, and that future empirical and translational work needs to consider this positive role of sexuality.


January 2015: Kate McLean

Each newsletter, we will feature an SSEA member. Our inaugural newsletter edition features Kate McLean, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychology at Western Washington University and Co-Chair of the Identity Issues Topic Network. Further information about Kate’s research can be found at https://katemclean.wordpress.com.

1. What led you to be interested in emerging adulthood/emerging adults?

My interest is in adolescence and emerging adult development. This is primarily because I study the development of identity, and these are stages where the demand to attend to this task, and the abilities to do so, heighten. My approach is based in narrative theory, which moves me to attend to the stories that people construct about their pasts, how those stories are actually constructed, and how variation in individual’s stories relates to personality and adjustment. I am particularly interested in the role of uncertainty and challenge in identity development. When people are faced with uncertainties or obstacles, this is often when we can ‘see’ more intense identity work, and emerging adulthood is a time when challenge and uncertainty are particularly common.

2. What is your current EA-focused research? Can you share with us any results?

Developing an identity is a psychosocial task that really lays the groundwork for many aspects of adult development (including continued identity development!). I am currently focused on how individuals integrate multiple aspects of themselves, and the world that surrounds them, to find a coherent way to understand themselves. My current work is focused on personal narratives about various aspects of self (e.g., career, gender roles, family), as well as master narratives, or larger cultural stories. Master narratives can facilitate identity development by providing frameworks in which to locate one’s self, and they can also constrain identity development by defining what kinds of identities are acceptable in a given society. Thinking about the connection between personal experience and societal structures is critical and complicated – it keeps me busy.

4. What have you been reading or watching lately that has stimulated your thinking about EA or related issues?

Karl Ove Knausgĺrd’s six-volume ‘autobiographical novel,’ My Struggle, has me thinking about identity and story with some regularity. The first and third volumes highlight the way that the mundane nature of adolescence and emerging adulthood comes face to face with the disruption and trauma that everyone will face at some point (e.g., losing a parent), and how identity develops in the interface between large and small stories. In the second volume, his description of being a Norwegian in Sweden brings to life identity issues of place and culture, as well as how challenging it can be to integrate various parts of the self (e.g., self as writer, father, husband). I am eagerly awaiting the translation of Volume 4 to see what more I can learn from him.